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Education in India
Education in pakistan
Teacher Certification with Limited Resources
Teacher Shortages from International Perspective
Teacher Training from an International Perspective
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Education in India
Issues of Teacher Education in India
Teacher Education in India:
In India, qualifications required to be a teacher vary across different provinces and states. The public schools generally recruit teachers through competitive exams. There are teaching degrees like BEd, DEd, TTC to professionally educate teachers. However, one may be appointed as teacher in a non government funded school even if one does not have these degrees. Along with Sate schools there are also schools run under the Central government. These schools strictly recruit teachers based on teaching qualification alone. In situations where the government recruits people without qualifications, there are in-service training done by DIETS. In post school education, no teaching-degrees are required, but national / state level examinations and qualifications are conducted by UGC (University grants commission).
Teacher Certification in India:
India, like many other developing countries, doesnot require to 'Certify' teachers, as it is done in the US. However, qualifying the state approved teacher education programs is considered as a proof to be a trained teacher.
Types of teacher education programs in India
: There are a number of teacher training courses offered in India at different level, which are as under:
Junior Basic Training Course
Primary Teachers Training Course
Junior Teacher's Training Certificate Courses
Teach for India (TFI)
: Inspired from TFA in the US, Teach for India (TFI) was launched in 2007. Modelled on the successful Teach for America program, TFI places the country's most outstanding college graduates and young professionals as teachers in India's low-income schools for two years. The aim is to narrow the educational gap and expand the educational opportunities available to thousands of underprivileged children.
Teacher Shortage in India:
India is also facing a huge teacher shortage like many other countries of the world. It is wide ranging from lower to higher level with multiple reasons behind these. A different set of reasons is working at the back of teacher shortage at elementary and higher level of education in India.
Global compaign for education: More teachers needed
: 19 % of the total primary schools are single teacher schools in India catering to nearly 12% of the total enrolment in primary classes (DISE 2004). Systemic factors - lack of teachers (especially female), teacher absenteeism, irregular classes, overcrowded classrooms, and traditional methods of rote learning – have diminished the quality of teaching/learning and the support teachers and schools can provide children.
“The problem of shortage of teachers is being witnessed at all levels in the country. Currently, the biggest challenge faced by higher educational institutions in India is the acute shortage of qualified and competent faculties,” said Mithilesh Kumar Singh, senior fellow at the Apeejay Stya Education Research Foundation, a New Delhi-based education management outfit.
Teacher shortage in India
This teacher shortage is huge and have multiple aspects.
Reasons of Teacher Shortage:
Ageing Teaching Force
: The teaching workforce is ageing. A considerable number of countries already have an old teaching force, with 49% of teachers in upper secondary education in Sweden aged 50 and over. Moreover, recent signs point to a worsening of the situation in several other countries, such as Germany and New Zealand.
: Salaries are falling compared with other professions while knowledge-based societies are placing new demands on teachers’ abilities, such as mastering information and communications technology (ICT) as part of their core teaching requirements. Faced with these problems, ensuring that there will be enough skilled teachers to educate all children becomes an issue of major importance to policymakers. This situation is even more crucial in subjects like engineering and higher education as the qualified faculty get better paying offers from non-teahing institutes and thus join them as a result.
The UN Rao committee
earlier pointed out that India had a huge shortage of teachers for engineering. For instance in 2000-01,
Indian engineering institutions required Total 60,970 teachers
broken down into: 8,710 professors, 17,420 readers and 34,840 lecturers. In terms of professional qualifications, 26,130 Ph Ds and 34,840 M Techs are required, while, 5,862 Ph Ds and 11,035 M Techs are available. That's a
shortfall of around 70 per cent, a figure that's more than doubled over the decade. So one can imagine the quality of students being churned out.
faculty shortage in technical institutions
Teachers migration to developed countries.
: There is a new wave of academic migration in to the developed countries, which is being powered by an acute shortage of teachers in western countries, especially the United States and Britain. It is estimated that there are as many as 22,000 vacancies for school teachers in the US of which more than 10 percent could be open to Indians. The shortage of maths, science and English teachers is particularly acute as native teachers migrate to lucrative jobs in other sectors of the economy.
Challenges to Teacher Education in India:
India is facing a number of challenges in teacher education, such as acute shortage in high need areas and subjects, rural/urban issues, lack of resources and facilties especially in hard-to-reach areas, and low female teaching force which is the reason and cause both of low female literacy rate in India.
Teachers Shortage in High need areas:
India is facing more shortage in some specific subjects and high-need areas. Just like many other developing countries (e.g. Pakistan), high need areas are not cities but rural and far-flung areas. Here is some details about specific subjects and high need areas of India.
Teacher shortage in Engineering
: Various experts estimate that India has only 10 to 30 percent of the qualified instructors it needs.
The shortfall is a product of India' s economic success story - as well as a peril to its future expansion. High salaries and abundant jobs are attracting more students to engineering, and at the same time wooing teachers away from classrooms and into the office parks that now dot many of India' s southern cities.
Lack of Female teachers
India being a strictly gender segregated society is facing a paucity of female teachers. Currently, only 29% of the teaching force at primary level is female (MHRD, 1993). This ratio is even lower at university level where 22% are female teachers.
Available resources for education and teacher education:
An overview of the numbers of schools, teachers, teacher educators, teacher education institutions, and enrolments in schools and in teacher education institutions would give an idea of the enormous expansion of the school education system and of the problems which the teacher education system needs to handle. While the percentage of trained teachers in schools is around 90%, the issue of providing in-service education to more than 4.5 million teachers at regular intervals imposes heavy demands on the system, which becomes all the more acute as capacities of teacher education institutions are limited and are suffering from lack of resources, infrastructure, training materials, and professional expertise.
recent budget allocations for teachers' education in India
India has introduced the Five Year Plan for the Right to Education Act 2009 which calls for an overall budget of 1.7 trillion rupees. That counts on adding the million teachers and at least 100,000 schools to be built or renovated, plus the costs of training the new teachers. Without a doubt, this money will also go toward raising the salaries of the existing teachers based on some sort of combination of seniority and merit.
Limited Resources in Indian Schools
Limited Resources in Indian Schools
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