Type in the content of your page here.
Teacher Education In Pakistan: issues related to teacher shortage and quality

This page is an attempt to share problems and nature of teacher education in Pakistan, dysfunctional or ghost schools are new trends in Pakistan .where due to shortage of teachers and physical resources schools are registered on government papers but in actual they are not working .Recently in NWFP 367 schools have been closed due to teacher shortage. Ratio of students in science vs. social sciences at secondary level is 30%vs 70%(1998).Financial constraints, limited high schools, low salary of teachers, limited number of people who pursue education after high school particularly in rural areas, and gender disparity all these factors have made difficult for teacher education in Pakistan to maintain standards and to overcome the problem of shortage. But efforts are continued to bring reforms .for detail analysis please visit (www.accountancy.com.pk/.../economic-survey-pakistan-2007-08-02.pdf).
1. Issues related to Teacher shortage:
Following indicators were used to assess the level of teacher shortage.

· Increased number of Teacher pupil ratio: The official pupil/teacher ratio is 40:1 for both rural and urban areas. Whereas, the actual over all PTR is 48:1. At present, a typical primary school is officially envisaged as a two teacher school for approximately 80 children. http://www.unesco.org/education/wef/countryreports/pakistan/rapport_2_1.html

· Decreased numbers of teachers in professional colleges
Recent statistical reports have indicated a d decreased in number of people who pursue teaching in professional colleges.

· Acute shortage in certain areas: Baluchistan and NWFP are the areas in Pakistan where teacher shortage is acute and literacy rate is also very low.Recently due to Shortage of teachers has closed 367 primary schools in the Frontier province, depriving over 36,700 children of education.
http://www.interface.edu.pk/ Schools-teachers-shortage-in-NWFP.asp.htm

· Acute shortage of science Teachers.
Shortage of science and math teachers is still a concern .following link provides a good piece of information on situation of teacher shortage in science.

1.2 Major Reasons of Teacher Shortage;

· Economic Factors(salary and incentives)

Findings from the Consumer Price Index indicate that there is a gap of 10 points between the increase of the public school teacher’s salary and increase in the prices of the consumable items. A vast difference in salary of private and public schools teachers.Reported by

· Physical factors
Poor working conditions:
Province-wise, buildings in Punjab are in a satisfactory position while in Baluchistan ,most buildings fall in dangerous condition. About 37.8% schools in public sector are without boundary wall, 32.3% without drinking water, 56.4% without electricity, 40.5% without latrine and 6.8% without building.


Issues related to quality
How to raise the number of qualified teachers ?this is the major issue that Pakistan is facing now for primary and middle schools as teacher training requirements are low.


· Teacher absenteeism
A study in rural areas shows that "out of 125 schools visited by the survey team, only 96 happened to be open at the time of the visit. Moreover, of these 96 schools, only half were classified as "fully functional,"

· Teacher qualification
A joint study by Harvard University and the Academy of Education Planning and Management in Pakistan shows that math scores for students in grades four and five rose with the level of their teachers' level of education.

Out Dated curriculum

Out dated curriculum is also a big issue as indicated by a study ;there was very little evidence of any new approaches being used by teachers of English, mathematics and science in the classroom. Reliance on the textbook and rote learning remained the core approaches
to pedagogy.


Subject matter is not regularly updated to keep pace with recent subject advances.
There is no attempt to integrate subject knowledge with pedagogical skills.

Copyright © College of Education Michigan State University , East Lansing, MI 48824